Policies

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UNEP-WCMC does not assert any intellectual property rights in the data made available to it by data providers. 

Access to UNEP-WCMC datasets is provided on the understanding that you read and consent to be bound by the Terms and Conditions set out in the policies below.

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Meet our staff

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Patricia Cremona

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Threats to Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity © Various (Tim Keegan, Tambako the Jaguar, Crustmania, Salvatore Barbera, Sarahemcc, Steve Severecci)

 These include:

  • The unsustainable harvesting of natural resources, including plants, animals and marine species.
  • The loss, degradation or fragmentation of ecosystems through land conversion for agriculture, forest clearing etc.
  • Invasive non-native or 'alien' species being introduced to ecosystems to which they are not adapted i.e. where they have no, or not enough, predators, to maintain an ecological balance. 
  • Pollution
  • Climate change


The first two have taken place throughout human history, although not on the current scale. The introduction of invasive species is certainly facilitated, if not caused, by the level of international transport and traffic of goods of our trade system. The latter two are definitely products of an industrial age.